Monday, August 24, 2020

Bone Diseases :: essays research papers fc

Bone illnesses most straightforwardly impact the capacity to walk or to move any piece of the body- - hands, appendages, neck, and spine. They are identified with joint issue - ARTHRITIS, COLLAGEN DISEASE, DISLOCATION of joints, and RHEUMATISM. The clinical claim to fame relating to bone issue is ORTHOPEDICS. Breaks are the most regular bone issue. They can happen as the consequence of a mishap or be optional to metabolic maladies. Cracks are perilous to matured individuals having the metabolic bone malady OSTEOPOROSIS, in which bones become permeable and weak. An individual, for the most part ladies, having osteoporosis may pad a hip throughout a fall what's more, beyond words difficulties. Birth Defects Innate bone ailments establish a wide range, running from the insignificant - for occasion, mellow bent-legs - to serious sores, for example, spina bifida, in which the lower end of the spine neglects to grow appropriately and the child is brought into the world with loss of motion and distorted vertebrae. Inborn sicknesses may have hormonal bases: for instance, stringy DYSPLASIA, in which sinewy tissue replaces that of certain bones, regularly brings about bone disfigurement; moreover, a few young ladies with this illness truly develop so early that they are able to do pregnancy and labor at seven years old. Intrinsic imperfections additionally may have hereditary bases, as in families who have additional fingers or toes or in the ailment osteogenesis imperfecta, in which youngsters have such weak bones that many are broken. Scatters of development and advancement incorporate a few sorts of dwarfism and gigantism. Bones or appendages may create disfigurement as the consequence of referred to causes, for example, the disease poliomyelitis, or obscure or variable causes, such as shape of the spine (SCOLIOSIS) or CLUBFOOT. Contaminations Infections of bone, called osteomyelitis, are normally brought about by discharge delivering microbes, particularly Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Before the advancement of anti-microbials, kids habitually gotten this infection. Today bone contaminations are presented fundamentally through cracks and during careful activities. Individuals tainted with syphilis, tuberculosis, uncleanliness, or yaws are powerless to bone harm. Metabolic Disorders Metabolic irregularities frequently include surrenders in the capacity of minerals, especially calcium and phosphate particles, in the skeleton. Infections of the kidney can cause a metabolic awkwardness of phosphate and calcium with the goal that debilitating of the bone happens. Other metabolic bone ailments are osteoporosis, gout, OSTEOARTHRITIS, and PAGET'S Ailment. Nourishing Disorders Nutritional inadequacies that bring about bone harm incorporate RICKETS in kids and osteomalacia in grown-ups, brought about by an absence of nutrient D. In kids, calcium also, phosphate are inadequately conveyed on bones during advancement, coming about particularly in deformation of the legs and arms. In grown-ups, bones of the spine, pelvis, and legs become demineralized also, the bones debilitate. SCURVY- - brought about by a absence of nutrient C- - additionally influences bone tissues. A concentrate in the late 1980s demonstrated that the mineral boron is healthfully significant, also. Clearly, it lessens loss of the bone minerals

Saturday, August 22, 2020

What is IMF Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

What is IMF - Essay Example Great administration is a lot of rules that have been received by both the World Bank and the IMF to direct them and help them to accomplish their targets and objectives in their part nations. The present situation is that these associations currently are applying comparable measures as the, great administration methods to different parts of the foundation, for example, straightforwardness and responsibility. Different aspects incorporate reasonableness, unprejudiced nature, proficiency and proprietorship (Woods 2000). In spite of the fact that IMF itself is an immense subject, I might want to target exclusively the administration part of the association. Just great and sound administration of an association can bring about the total and sufficient usage of its approaches. As indicated by Beke (2002) the basic justification for administration in IMF is to dispose of defilement and to support straightforwardness just as responsibility in every financial strategy and issues of some random nation. Since, 1997 the IMF has acquainted techniques with care for the assets of the association to forestall washing of money related assets. What's more, implies are additionally taken to follow a wide range of uses explicitly those on neediness related issues. Subsequently, administration is required in all stages. Be it the manner in which the cash is loaned or released to a nation, in the execution of certain economy related strategies, or be it in inside the IMF itself. In this way, I might want to inquire ab out every one of the three of these parts of administration in my examination. There are useful purposes for the reception of the great administration standards by the IMF. One of the premier as per Woods (2000) is proprietorship and cooperation. The explanation for them is that these two methods will expand the proficiency and viability of IMF. It has likewise been expressed that in the past any disagreeable or out of line demonstration of a nation's administration was accused on IMF. Subsequently, these arrangements additionally improve the picture of the administration by expressing that there is no inconvenience by the IMF upon any nation to embrace its strategy. Any nation that does to accept the exhortation of the IMF and follow its arrangements and rules does as such willingly. Previously, the IMF comprised of an encased gathering of arrangement creators, notwithstanding, as of late because of its great administration measures the association has opened-up. This actuates the idea of straightforwardness. The explanation for this is the point at which an association in encased (as budgetary foundations and governments just), straightforwardness is troublesome; in this manner, debasement wins. In such a situation pay off happens and the legislature can without much of a stretch mislead its residents by putting the fault for monetary change on an organization, for example, the IMF. So as to keep such desperate circumstances from emerging it is basic that acceptable administration arrangements (particularly those that incorporate straightforwardness methodology and procedures) are incorporated. Research Methodology The exploration system will with the end goal that the foundation and extent of the paper will be given. The essential extent of this paper is that it will help future strategy creators just as analysts to advance their examinations. In the down to earth sense this

Friday, July 17, 2020

2018 Novels by Iraqi Authors, and Why They Matter

2018 Novels by Iraqi Authors, and Why They Matter If you scour the internet for Iraqi novels, youll find dozens of lists and list-essays. But these piecesâ€"15 Great Books About Iraq, Afghanistan  or The Iraq Novel Weve Been Waiting For  or Im Not the Enemy or A Reading List of Modern War Storiesâ€"give us the perspective of the US soldier, journalist, and aid worker. What they tell us very little about is Iraq. Two years after the invasion, in 2005, USA Today reported that more than 300 books had been published in English about the war and ongoing occupation. By now, an Amazon search turns up more than 3,800. A number of them have been critically and commercially successful:  American Sniper, The Final Move Beyond Iraq, War Stories, Redeployment, Yellow Birds. Yet in the first ten years after the invasion, exceptionally few novels by Iraqi authors had been published in English. That has been changing. This year, we saw the publication of Muhsin al-Ramlis  The Presidents Gardens,  translated by Luke Leafgren;  the sci-fi collection  Iraq + 100,  edited by Hassan Blasim and Ra Page; and  Baghdad Eucharist, by Sinan Antoon, translated by Maia Tabet. There are novels by Iraqi authors now. Heres some of the best. January 2018 Frankenstein in Baghdad,  by  Ahmed Saadawi translated by  Jonathan Wright This book won the International Prize for Arabic Fiction in 2014. From the publisher: From the rubble-strewn streets of US-occupied Baghdad, the scavenger Hadi collects human body parts and stitches them together to create a corpse. His goal, he claims, is for the government to recognize the parts as people and give them a proper burial. But then the corpse goes missing, just as the city is hit by a wave of eerie murders, and reports start to stream in of a horrendous-looking criminal who, though shot, cannot be killed. As the violence escalates, the Whatsitsname and the havoc it wreaks assume a magnitude far greater than anyone could have imagined. March 2018 The Beekeper,  by Dunya Mikhail translated by Max Weiss with the author From the publisher: Since 2014, Daesh (ISIS) has been brutalizing the Yazidi people of northern Iraq: sowing destruction, killing those who won’t convert to Islam, and enslaving young girls and women. The Beekeeper, by the acclaimed poet and journalist Dunya Mikhail, tells the harrowing stories of several women who managed to escape the clutches of Daesh. You can also read a review of the Arabic edition by Hend Saeed on ArabLit. May 2018 The Baghdad Clock,  by  Shahed Alrawi, translated by Luke Leafgren From the publisher: Baghdad, 1991. A young Iraqi girl and her best friend find themselves living in war-torn Baghdad during the first Gulf War. Populated by a host of colourful characters, we share the two girls dreams, music, school life and first loves as they grow up in a city torn apart by civil war. And as the bombs fall, the international sanctions bite and friends begin to flee the country, the city services collapse while abandoned dogs roam the streets and fortune-tellers thrive amidst the fear and uncertainty.   This poignant debut novel will spirit readers away to a world they know only from the television, revealing just what it is like to grow up in a city that is slowly disappearing in front of your eyes. August 2018 Baghdad Noir, ed. Samuel Shimon This collection promises brand-new stories by: Muhsin al-Ramli, Nassif Falak, Hadia Said, Ahmed Saadawi, Salima Salih, Roy Scranton, Hayet Raies, Mohammed Alwan Jabr, Dheya al-Khalidi, Hussain al-Mozany, Sinan Antoon, Salar Abdoh, Ali Bader, and Layla Qasrany. From “Getting to Abu Nuwas Street” by contributor Dheya al-Khalidi: Baghdad’s streets are desolate after midnight. The dark gathers in front of shops and alleyways. Wooden stalls for selling produce are laid down and intertwined like a broken-down train at a station. I’d always watch the cats chase each other, hiss and fight by the butcher’s shop. But odd there weren’t any stray dogs around, since I used to hear them bark in the capital every day. Maybe they sensed something grave that night, so they were hiding, putting off the hunt for another time. September/October 2018 Watermelon Boys,  by  Ruqaya Izzidien Iraqi-Welsh author Ruqaya Izzidien says about writing this compelling historical novel: Before beginning writing The Watermelon Boys, I searched for months for fiction set in Mesopotamia around the First World War, but found just one series, that dealt overwhelmingly with the lives of soldiersâ€"and when it did feature Arabs, they were the exotic context for the British protagonists. I knew through family stories that British forces had been in Basra during the war, but growing up through the British education system, I had not once been taught anything about it from an historical context. So, the idea for this book came from a fascination about this period that I felt had been censored out of the schooling system, Forthcoming 2018-2019 Fihris: The Book of Collateral Damage, by Sinan Antoon, trans. Jonathan Wright. Estimated release: March 2019. The story of a novel that cannot be written. A New York based Iraqi literature professor is overwhelmed by the extent of the destruction of his homeland. From a review by Hend Saeed: In the opening scene, a bird, who is remembering the day he learned to fly with his mother and father in a clear sky, is now flying toward the warm country. The last scene sees the bird reaching the warm country with his family. But he finds it hard to fly in a sky full of huge metal birds and black smoke, and then he loses his family. The Gardens Presidents,  by Muhsin al-Ramli, trans. Luke Leafgren. This novel is set to be published in Arabic early next year, with an English translation soon to follow. It is the follow-up to al-Ramlis powerful  The Presidents Gardens,  and  The Gardens Presidents  is as yet a working title. What are your favorite novels by Iraqi authors?  

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Kelsey Kubistal. Mr. West. American Literature. 13 February

Kelsey Kubistal Mr. West American Literature 13 February 2017 Diversity The array of females in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald are unique in their own ways. No two people in the world are the same, but these three women: Jordan Baker, Daisy Buchanan, and Myrtle Wilson are definitely contrasting. Not only are they, in particulars, different from one another, but the way they act and the things they do are also very diverse. Daisy Buchanan is more of a laid back, kind of rich girl who has things handed to her because she has money. Whereas, Myrtle lives with her husband, George Wilson, in a run-down, small house on top of George’s auto-repair shop. Jordan Baker lives with her aunt in an apartment in Manhattan and cheats at golf†¦show more content†¦The setting of her house just proves it. She lives in the ‘valley of the ashes’ right on top of her husband’s auto-repair shop. The way she dresses shows that she wants attention and wants people to notice her. But the only person who really noticed her was Tom Bucha nan, whom she was having an affair with. And even he wasn’t who she thought she deserved, considering he hit her right in front of everyone at a get-together. Daisy! Daisy! Daisy! shouted Mrs. Wilson. I ll say it whenever I want to! Daisy! Dai –– (Fitzgerald 37). Myrtle obviously knew that Tom had a wife, and was expressive with the way she talked about her. That is what caused a fist to her face from Tom. Myrtle is overall very different from Daisy and Jordan. Jordan Baker is a young woman who was involved romantically with Nick Carraway throughout the novel. She is a self-centered woman who was a bit over the top with herself. She was a golfer and occasionally cheated by pushing the golf balls into the hole. She is described as â€Å"boyish† and isn’t really as obsessed with her beauty and talent as Daisy and Myrtle are. And she doesn’t have to work as hard as Myrtle did just to get attention from men. Jordan understands that she is a mat ure woman who should just let things flow to her, rather than forcing it. â€Å"But there was Jordan beside me, who, unlike Daisy, was too wise ever to carry well-forgotten dreams from age to age†(Fitzgerald 135). The narrator is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Rwandan Genocide And Ethnic Conflict - 1768 Words

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1.0 Introduction The Rwandan genocide has been a topic of discussion and study by many scholars, researchers and humanitarian bodies seeking to find the root cause of its happening. Some found out that deterioration in the political climate was the possible cause. Others argued that the Hutu elite were only safeguarding their political power from the Tutsis who had, under the colonial rule, oppressed the Hutus. The genocide was seen to be the best platform for settling scores between the two ethnic groups. The purpose of the study is to find out whether the Rwandan genocide was as a result of ethnic hostilities or other underlying reasons while focusing on its impact on the country’s economic, social, cultural as well as political spheres. It will also seek to fill the gap of knowledge on what could be done to reduce the occurrence of such conflicts. The African governments play a critical role in ensuring that policies are put in place to promote cohesion among the different ethnic groups that constitute the nation. The role might not have been well played hence the occurrence of the Rwanda genocide which was a massive blow on the African country. Ethnic difference might occur but how the leaders deal with them paves way for either peace of conflict. Leaders are the starting point, form the remarks they make during political rallies to their postings on social media. The international humanitarian bodies have a role to play in peacekeeping,Show MoreRelatedRwandan Genocide And Ethnic Conflict3296 Words   |  14 Pages the state of Rwanda was hurled into chaos as genocides took the lives of 800,000 people . Began by the Hutu political elite and its military support, their main targets were the Tutsi, and Hutu moderates. Many have claimed â€Å"ethnic hatred† as the reason of the Rwanda Genocide and while an ethnic split existed in Rwanda during the conflict, the causes for the genocide are numerous and complicated. In examining the Rwanda Genocide as an ethnic conflict it is crucial that ethnicity be inspected as itRead MoreGhosts of Rwanda Essay1374 Words   |  6 PagesRwanda Reflection Does the Genocide in Rwanda have a singular cause? I do not believe so; the cause of genocide in Rwanda in 1994 was due to years of built up hatred between the Tutsis and the Hutus along with many other occurrences. The Rwandan Genocide is no exception with many variables contributing to the horrific events that took place. According to the documentary Ghosts of Rwanda, in 1994, Rwanda experienced a premeditated, systematic and state sponsored genocide with the aim of exterminatingRead MoreA Look at the Rwandan Genocide Essay1014 Words   |  5 Pages Thousands of people died. The only reason is because they were a different political party. There are terrible economies. People are suffering and have very little hope. Genocide is the only reason. Everything could have been prevented if genocide didn’t exist. The world basically ignored the genocide and pretended like it never happened because they didn’t want to spend the money. Thousands of people could still be al ive if the world stepped up at helped the victims of this horrible crime. RwandaRead MoreThe Rwandan Genocide : A Perspective Analysis Through Media1166 Words   |  5 PagesJordon Jones Genocides in Comparative Historical Perspective 01:090:292:01 Professor Douglas Greenberg Final Paper 6 December 2015 The Rwandan Genocide: A Perspective Analysis Through Media â€Å"The Tutsis are collaborators with the Belgian colonists. They stole our land. They whipped us. Now they have come back, these Tutsi rebels. They are murderers. They are cockroaches. Rwanda is our Hutu Land. We must squash the infestation. This is RTLM, Hutu Power Radio. Stay Alert. Watch your neighborsRead MoreThe Rwanda Of The Rwandan Defence Force904 Words   |  4 Pagesterrorism; ethnic violence and a lack of proper governance. Each conflict has its own individual history, perpetrators, victims and bystanders with difficult answers on how to solve them. The post-genocide nation of Rwanda witnessed one of the most horrific events a nation could experience, genocide. However, it has rebuilt itself to become an example nation for transitional justice, political stability and economic development. Rwanda’s military capabilities within the institute of the Rwandan DefenceRead More Roots of the Rwandan Genocide1739 Words   |  7 PagesOn April 6, 1994, Rwanda experienced a period of great turmoil as thousands of people fell victim to the horrors of the Rwandan genocide. The main targets of the genocide were Tutsis and Hutu moderates. Though the main cause of the genocide was a conflict between two ethnicities, the genocide was also fueled by political factors and social conditions. Rwanda is the smallest sub-Saharan country with a population of about 7 million inhabitants. Although the indigenous peoples of Rwanda are the TwaRead MoreCase Study: Rwanda Genocide Essay1563 Words   |  7 PagesStudy: Rwanda The conflict in Rwanda is probably the most well known and documented case of genocide since the holocaust. Through years of discrimination based on ethnic and class based differences, the population of Rwanda has been constantly entrenched in periods of fighting, refuge and genocide. In the following essay we will explore the background of the conflict. Specifically the historical implications, the parties involved the reasons for the fighting and the result of conflict. Next we willRead MoreChristianity and Genocide in Rwanda800 Words   |  4 Pages Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda by Timothy Longman discusses the roles of the churches in Rwanda and how their influence might have been able to alter the outcome of the genocide. He discusses the rise of Juvenal Habyarimana in politics with his Catholic background, church and state relations, and obedience to political authority. His slogan â€Å"Peace, Unity, and Development† were his political plans for Rwanda. On April 6, 1994, president Juvenal Habyarimana’s plane was shot down marking the beginningRead MoreThe Rwandan Genocide And The Genocide1393 Words   |  6 PagesThe Rwandan Genocide was one of the most violent genocides in the history of the world and was intricately planned and implemented by the ethnic group called the Hutu in an attempt to eliminate another, the Tutsis. Though the genocide lasted only one hundred days, the number of deaths is estimated to be approximately 800,000. In the wake of the genocide, mass chaos plagued the country of Rwanda, deepening the divide between the groups Hutu and Tutsi. Although it can be said the genocide was causedRead MoreWhat was the Cause of the Rwandan Genocide?1116 Words   |  5 PagesWhat was the cause of the Rwandan Genocide? The assassination of the president of Rwanda, Juvenal Habyarimana on April 6, 1994, was the event that started the 100 Day massacre of the Tutsis by the Hutus, known as the Rwandan Genocide. The objective of this investigation is to find out the root of the cause of the Rwandan Genocide. The body of evidence will investigate the history of the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups and the events leading up to the genocide. The evidence includes

Westin Pune Free Essays

string(36) " of the Mughal and Maratha periods\." THE WESTIN  PUNE, INDIA INDUSTRAIL TRANING REPORT ABHIJIT. MANE YCMOU -2nd YEAR INSTITUTE OF ADVANCE MANAGEMENT, GOA INDUSTRIAL EXPOSURE TRAINING REPORT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to convey my sincere thanks to all the people who have supported me  in making the project and especially to all my faculty member and Mr. Anuraj. We will write a custom essay sample on Westin Pune or any similar topic only for you Order Now Bhatnagar Mr. Sanjay. Kumar for accepting me as a trainee. I am also thankful to the staff of THE  WESTIN who have always been a support in completion of the training also  been very supportive in the entire tenure ABHIJIT MANE. CONTENTS AN  INTRODUCTION  TO PUNE INTRODUCTION TO THE WESTIN * DEPARTMENTAL  STUDY: 1: F B SERVICE 2: HOUSEKEEPING 3: FRONT OFFICE 4: PRODUCTION * CONCLUSION * REFERENCE About Pune Pune has been known by a plethora of sobriquets. Popular among them: Queen of the Deccan, cultural capital of Maharashtra, pensioner’s paradise and Oxford of the East. Pune is one of the historical cities of India with a glorious past, an innovative present and a promising future. The Pune Municipal Corporation administers the city. Its boundaries extend over four hundred square kilometers and it has a population of  close to four million. Thus, Pune city has been developed in to a Pune metropolitan area, just equal in area to that of Greater Mumbai. It is located 192 km (by rail) and 160km (by road) from Mumbai and is 559 meters above the mean sea level. Being surrounded by beautiful hills and the Sinhagad fort, it has a temperate climate. Water, which is plentiful, is supplied to the city from Panshet, Khadakvasla and Varasgaon dams –all located about thirty kilometers from Pune. Pune is among the greenest urban areas in the country with more than 40 per cent of  its area under green cover. PUNE or Punyanagri as it is called has had a glorious past of nearly 1000 years. Punes history is both illustrious and romantic. The cities historical associations are fast woven with Shivaji Maharaj, the Peshwas and Lokmanya Tilak. It was here, in the Lal Mahal that Shivaji boldly attacked Aurangzeb’s uncle, and Shaista Khanand won back the lost territories. Later it was ruled by the Peshwas. When Bajirao-Ibecame the Peshwa, he made Pune the headquarters of the army and the Shaniwar Wada was built. Bazaars and shopping plazas. Palaces and ritzy hotels. Temples, mosques, churches and even a synagogue to visit. This sprawling metropolis conjures up myriad images -ancient forts, ornate palaces, lush gardens, shopping arcades, educational institutions and rolling hills. The Ganapati festival celebrated yearly, called the Pune Festival, has made its mark on the tourist map of India. Geographical  Profile  of  Pune: The city of Pune lies between 18 degrees 32 minutes north; 73 degrees 51 minutes East. It has an altitude of  559 meters above mean sea level and has a very pleasant climate. The Temperatures range from 15 degrees C to 35degrees C. The best time to visit is October-March. The Winter Period is between Mid Nov to mid Feb characterized by Dry, cold nights, pleasantly warm days. The spring fall sin between Mid-Feb to end-March having Warm days and pleasant nights Tourist Spots Lal Deval (Synagogue) Lal Deval is conspicuously placed on Moledina Road. The red-brick-and-stone structure built-in the English Gothic style, resembles a church. It is Pune’s finest synagogue, built by philanthropist David Sassoon in 1867. Bund Garden Bund Garden lies on the right bank of the Mula Mutha River. Constructed by Sir Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy primarily for providing water to the poor during summer, it has become a popular unwinding spot for citizens with an added attraction of boating facilities and has recently added a well-designed  jogging track. Bund Garden is now known as the Mahatma Gandhi Udyan. The Osho International Commune The Osho International Commune is in Koregaon Park, attracting thousands of foreigners wishing to take part in the meditation courses organized by the Ashram. The Commune was founded by Osho Rajneesh who died in 1990. His Samadhi is situated in the Ashram. The commune has beautiful gardens open to the public in the mornings and evenings. Aga Khan Palace True to its name this place boasts of  Italianate arches and spacious lawns, an un likely place for a prison but the Britishers interned Mahatma Gandhi and his wife Kasturba Gandhi here. The architecture of the palace will take you down memory lane, reminding you of the illustrations from fairy. Shindyanchi  Chhatri Amongst the architectural prides of Pune, the memorial to the great warrior Mahadji Shinde, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army, between the years 1760 to1780 under the mighty Peshwas. The temple adorned with Rajasthani architecture is an imposing edifice situated at Wanowrie. Shaniwar Wada The historic palace of the Peshwa (Prime Ministers) rulers became the seat of political power during Bajirao reign and became so conspicuous that to this date the palace has become the symbol of the city and its culture. Built in 1736, the Shaniwar Wada was once the palace of the great Peshwa rulers. The wada (Fort) was destroyed by a major fire in 1827, the cause of the fire till today remains a mystery. Parvati Hill and Temples The ‘Nagarkhana’ drum house, the imposing temple of Parvati and Devdeveshwar are the main structures on the hill. The Parvati museum houses portraits of heroes of the Peshwa dynasty, besides old manuscripts, weapons and coins. A group of beautiful temples of Ganapati and Kartikeya make Parvati add to Parvati attractions. According to the records, the main idol was carved out of gold by craftsmen from Karnataka. After this was stolen in 1932, it was replaced by silver idols plated with gold. The 108 steep climb to the 17th century temple located on top; the hill is also the favorite haunt of  fitness fans. Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum is housed in a quaint Rajasthani-style building. It holds a one-man collection of the most fascinating Indian artifacts. Thirty-six sections of this museum are used to display a plethora of antiques, carved palace doors, pottery, a priceless collection of lamps and musical instruments of the Mughal and Maratha periods. You read "Westin Pune" in category "Essay examples" A master piece is the ‘Mastani Mahal’ brought and erected as it was from its original place! Bal Gandharv Mandir The home of Marathi Theatre, both commercial and experimental. Throughout the year there are different cultural happenings like exhibitions, theatre, orchestra – instrumental and vocal. Tilak Smarak Mandir Tilak Smarak Mandir on Tilak Road is a building commemorating the great freedom fighter and social reformer Lokmanya Tilak. On the ground floor is a small museum describingTilak’s public life and a theatre on the upper floors. SarasBaug Sitting like a flat oyster towards one end of  the city, the sunken Sarasbaug is a place where hundreds of Puneites throng every evening, for their share of fresh air among green surroundings. Adjoining Sarasbaug, across a small narrow road is another garden. This however, is not merely a park but a zoo as well – Peshwa Park. The Film and Television Institute of India The Film and Television Institute of India is situated on Law College Road. It imparts training in all branches of the film and television industry and is known for having produced some of the finest show-business professionals in the country The Katraj Snake Park The Katraj Snake Park has a collection of  reptiles, birds and turtles. Naturalists would delight in the Park’s exhibits and activities. The park has also recently added a zoo. Chaturshrungi Temple: Chaturshrungi Temple is situated on a hillock off Senapati Bapat Road. This temple of the goddess attracts droves of devotees during the nine-day Navaratri festival in October. Sinhagad Fort  One of the great forts of Maharashtra is based  in  Pune. This  is  the  place  where  brave soldiers fought for  the fort. Tanaji, one of  the trusted soldiers of Shivaji Maharaja sacrificed his son’s wedding  to win  the fort. He was well supported by his uncle Shelar Mama and his brave  Marathas. The fort  was  named Sinhgad from Kondana, after this brave Maratha who fought till death like a true lion. HISTORY OF PUNE History of Pune Down the centuries, Pune has been ruled by several dynasties. The earliest evidence found (copper plates of 758 A. D. and of 768 A. D. ) reveals that the Rashtrakootas ruled this region then. At that time, Pune was referred to as Punaka Vishaya and Punya Vishaya. Copper plates of 960 A. D. and 963 A. D. refer to it as Punaka Wadi and Punaka Desha. Here Vishaya means region. Later on, the city has been mentioned as Kasabe Pune. The Pune Gazetteer explains the term Pune as Punya – a holy place. In Hindu tradition, a confluence (sangama) of two rivers is sacred. Hence, this city, where there is a confluence of two rivers, is Punyanagari. After the Rashtrakootas, Pune was ruled by the Yadavadynasty. After the fall of this dynasty, it came under Muslim dominance till the middle of the seventeenth century. With the emergence of Chatrapati Shivaji, who founded the Maratha Empire, Pune became known to the Delhi Sultanate. Shivaji, spent his early childhood in Pune at Lal Mahal, a palace built by his father Shahaji, where Shivaji’s mother Jijabai lived for a decade. Dadaji Konddev, Shivaji’s mentor, developed Pune city. He constructed temple of Ganesha called Kasba Ganapati. This is the grama devata where invitations for all religious functions are first offered be it for a marriage, upanayana ceremony or any other functions. It was in this Lal Mahal that Shivaji attacked the Moghuls and defeated Shahiste khan, the  uncle of Aurangzeb After the death of Shivaji in 1680 and the cold blooded murder of his son Sambhaji, Aurangzeb named Pune as Muhiyabad. Pune gained importance during the period of the second Peshwa Thorala (senior) Bajirao who ruled from1720 to 1740. During his time, the palace of the Peshwas –Shaniwar wada was built. The various mahals or buildings were constructed by different Peshwas. There are still remains of a fountain with thousand outlets called Hazari Karanje. It was Thorala Bajirao who expanded the Maratha Empire into north and central provinces. Nanasaheb Peshwas acceded Thorala Bajirao Peshwa and ruled the Maratha kingdom from 1740 to 1761. He tried to control the Nizamand maintained peace. He was instrumental in urbanizing Pune city and encouraged the setting up of Peths or wards in Pune. He constructed the famous Parvati Temple complex, a pride of  Pune city. He designed a water supply system from Katraj Lake that lies to the south of Pune city. A number of temples and palaces were constructed during his time. Due to the family fueds that ensued thereafter, the Maratha power came to an end in 1818, when the British led by Mount Stuart Elphinstone defeated them and established the British Raj in this region. During this period, the French, the Portuguese and the British powers established contacts with the Peshwas, sent representatives for various functions. Pune and Delhi were the only centers of power during this century. Pune has been recognised as asset of learning and the Deccan College (1851) led the educational movement in Pune. Tilak, Agarkar, Bhandarkar and other luminaries of the nineteenth century studied in the Deccan College. They studied in the English language, but a literary movement was started by organizing the first Marathi literary conference in 1878. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade,V. K. Chiplunkar and others took lead in this sphere of life. Tilak, Agarkar, Nam Joshi and Principal Apte founded the Deccan Education Society and its Fergusson College in 1885. The New English School (1880), the Nutan Marathi Vidyalaya (1883) and the MES Society’s HighSchool (1875) were started. Soon after, a high school for Indian girls was established in1884. A new generation of educated Indians started the freedom movement under the leadership of Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. He started two newspapers, the Maratha in English (January 1, 1881) and the Kesri in Marathi (January 4, 1881). Through these newspapers, Tilak aroused interest in national education, national language, swadeshi and swarajyai – the four fold aims for independence. Swaraj is my birthright† was the slogan given by Tilak to the rest of India . Gopal Krishna Gokhale is another builder of modern India who established the Servants of  India Society and represented Indian interests in the imperial legislative council. Mahatma Gandhi considered him his guru. Maharshi Dhondo Keshav Karve is yet another gem of  modern India, who throughout his life fought for the uplif tment of women, started a college for them and established the first Indian University for women, named SNDT Women’s University. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1958. Senior Wrangler R. P. Paranjape is another luminary from Pune who sacrificed higher salaries and worked as the principal of  Fergusson College for over twenty years. Mahatma Jyotiba Phule started education for women and struggled hard for the upliftment of the depressed classes. Shrimati Anandibai Joshi was the first lady to complete medical education in the USA. Thus, we find the origin of various movements – social, religious, educational, political, economic and literary-, in Pune city HISTORY OF HOTEL In 1930, hotel owners Severt W. Thurston and Frank Duper, both of  Yakima, Washington  USA, formed a  partnership in order to manage their hotels more efficiently. Together with Peter and Adolph Schmidt they formed Western Hotels, with seventeen properties, all but one in the state of  Washington. Early management developed each property individually. After more than two decades of rapid growth, prompting a name change in 1954 to Western International Hotels, many of its  properties were merged into a single corporate structure in 1958, and the company went public in1963. For its 50th anniversary in 1980, it changed its name again to the current Westin Hotels Resorts . In 1970 , the chain was acquired by UAL Corporation. In 1987, UAL Chairman Richard Ferris announced a plan to make UAL into Allegis, a travel conglomerate based around United Airlines, Hertz Rent a Car, Hilton  Hotels, and Westin and linked by Apollo. This strategy failed, however, and Westin was sold in 1988 to Aoki Corporation of  Japan. In 1994 Aoki sold it to Starwood Capital, real estate investment firm and parent of  Starwood Lodging, and Goldman Sachs, an investment bank. In 1998 Starwood assumed full ownership of the company. Westin claims to have been the first hotel chain to introduce guest credit cards (in 1946), 24-hour  room service (1969), and personal voice mail in each room (1991). Westin markets certain amenities available in its properties to the public under the brand name   Heavenly In 2005, Westin became the first hotel company to gain a national retail store presence when  Nordstrom started carrying the   Heavenly Bed Line in more than 60  stores . Westin refreshed its partnership with United Airlines in 2008. United offers pillows and blankets from their Heavenly Bed line on select united premium service routes between New York City and California, as well as Westin decorations and scents  in some Red Carpet Club lounges Starwood Hotels and Resorts were originally formed by the real estate investment firm Starwood Capital to take advantage of a tax break; at the time the company was known as Starwood Lodging. Initially, Starwood Lodging owned a number of hotels throughout North America, all under different brand names. The Westin Hotel Company was purchased in 1994 from Aoki Corporation of Japan. Starwood acquired the Sheraton, Four Points by Sheraton, and The Luxury Collection brands from ITT Sheraton  in 1998. In 1999, Starwood launched their â€Å"W† Hotels brand. In September 2005, Starwood announced the launch of aloft, a new hotel brand based on W. aloft Hotels catered toward  business travelers . Starwood intends to have 500 aloft hotels worldwide by 2012. In 2005, Starwood purchased the Le Meridian brand, which greatly increased the company’s operations in Europe. In 2004, Starwood’s founder and CEO Barry Sternlicht stepped down as CEO to focus his attention on his other firm, Starwood Capital. He remained on the Board of Directors until 2005. He was succeeded as CEO by Steven J. Heyer, and Starwood began selling a number of its company-owned hotels, instead focusing on becoming a management company and franchiser  Ã‚  for its current and future hotel brands. In April 2007, Steven J. Heyer  left the company on their request of the Board of Directors because of an issue with Heyer’s management style and after  allegations of personal misconduct. Chairman of the Board Bruce Duncan served as interim CEO until September 2007, when the company announced Heyer’s successor, Frits van Paassche BRANDS (The  following list of  Starwood brands  is chronological, according  to each brand’s entry  into  Starwood) Westin The historic Westin Book-Cadillac Hotel in downtown Detroit . Main Westin Hotels   The Westin Hotels and Resorts Brand is Starwood’s largest upscale hotels and resorts brand. It was bought by Starwood in 1994 and is also the oldest brand within Starwood, dating back to1930 Sheraton Sheraton Poznan Sheraton Hotels and Resorts Sheraton is Starwood’s ‘flagship’ brand, providing luxury hotel and resort accommodation. It  began operating in 1937 and was sold to Starwood in 1998 by ITT. Four Points by Sheraton Points by Sheraton Four Points by Sheraton  was launched by ITT in 1995  as a mid-scale hotel brand. Originally the  brand was created by re-naming existing Sheraton â€Å"Inns† (a smaller, limited service version of  Sheraton Hotels). The new name avoided the confusion Some guests found in having two hotel categories (full service and mid-scale) with the same name (Sheraton). These hotels joined Starwood along with Sheraton in 1998   The Luxury Collection The historic Hotel Imperial in Vienna. The Luxury Collection Brand began when ITT Sheraton purchased a controlling interest in CIGA (Campania Italian a Grande Alberghi, or Italian Grand Hotels Company), an Italian hotel chain, in 1994. Those hotels, as well as a number of top-tier Sheraton Hotels, were then marketed as ITT Sheraton Luxury Hotels. After Starwood bought Sheraton, they established a separate  brand identity for The Luxury Collection and expanded it greatly. Both ITT Sheraton and later  Starwood kept CIGA’s original logo (the four horses of St. Mark) for The Luxury Collection  brand logo until 2009; each Luxury Collection hotel now uses its own logo. Many hotels in The Luxury Collection are smaller establishments in converted palaces or other  significant buildings; others are  lavishly restored historic hotels. Confusingly, eight hotels in The Luxury Collection Which were originally part of the ITT Sheraton Luxury group kept their   Sheraton Name, although the Luxury division is now a completely separate brand under Starwood . The following hotels operate  using their old Sheraton names, but within The Luxury Collection: Sheraton Sofia Hotel Balkan – Sofia, Bulgaria Sheraton Algarve Hotel – Albufeira, Portugal Sheraton Park Tower Hotel – London, UK Sheraton Ankara Hotel – Ankara, Turkey Sheraton Addis – Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Sheraton Kuwait Hotel and Towers – Kuwait Sheraton Grande Sukhumi – Bangkok, Thailand Sheraton Grande Laguna – Phuket, Thailand W Hotels The W Hotel in Washington, D. C. is located in the former Hotel Washington, built in 1918 to the designs of architectural firm Carrere and Hastings. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. W Hotels is Starwood’s luxury boutique hotel brand, launched in 1998. The hotel brand, which generally markets towards a younger crowd, was launched in 1998 with its first property, W  New York, at 541 Lexington Avenue in Manhattan. The brand has expanded internationally with  properties opening first in Mexico City, Seoul, and Istanbul. The brand’s first resort property is W Maldives Retreat Spa. The W Barcelona hotel was W’s first in Western Europe and opened in October 2009. It features futuristic design by architect Ricardo Bo fills in the shape of a sail. Standing 26 stories tall, it can  be seen from all over the city. The property is located next to the beach and boasts private access to it. It also includes a Bliss spa, gym and conference facilities. A new W Hotel was opened in early 2010 in Hollywood, CA with a Vegas-style nightclub called Drays designed by Victor Dari, followed by the opening of their fourth hotel in New York City’s Downtown District in August. The W plans to double its number of properties by 2011 with hotels planned in Austin, Texas (2010); Taipei, Taiwan (2010); Marrakech, Morocco (2011); Guangzhou, China (2011); Bangkok, Thailand (2011); Paris, France (2011); Athens, Greece (2011); St. Petersburg, Russia (2011); and London (2011) where the Hotel is located in Leicester  Square and opened on February 14th 2011. Retreat spa properties are planned in Bali, Indonesia (2010) and Koh Samui, Thailand (2010). Future hotel properties in Singapore (2012), Milan, Italy (2012); Amman, Jordan (2012); Abu Dhabi, UAE (2012); Santa Fe, Mexico (2013); and Cairo, Egypt (2016) have been planned as well as a retreat spa property in Riviera Maya, Mexico (2014). Starwood is planning the W Hotel’s first ski retreat in Verbier, Switzerland (2012), bringing the total number of W Hotels to 55. St. Regis The St. Regis New York. Is Starwood’s main luxury brand, launched in 1999 . It is named for the flagship St. Regis Hotel in New York, which was built in 1904 in Manhattan at 5th Avenue and 55th Street  by John Jacob Astor IV, who also founded the Astoria Hotel (which later became the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel) and who died in 1912 on the RMS Titanic. In the 1930s, head bartender  Fern and Petit, introduced the Bloody Mary  cocktail. The St. Regis was a Sheraton from the 1960s on, and following a lavish restoration in 1988 was part of the ITT Sheraton Luxury division before it  became the cornerstone of Starwood’s new brand. All St. Regis properties except The Lanes borough in London use The St. Regis name. Le Meridien Le Meridien: Le Meridien was founded by Air France in 1972 and was sold to Starwood in 2005, by which  point it was based in the UK. It has 130 properties worldwide and its first property was LeMeridien Etoile in France. Aloft Aloft Hotels: Aloft is a mid-scale, urban-style business / boutique hotel brand. The brand was launched in2005 as a ‘vision of W Hotels’, a relationship similar to Four Points by Sheraton and its ‘brand  parent’, Sheraton. It has been criticized for being too slick and formulaic. Element by Westin: Announced in 2006, this is Starwood’s first brand of hotels intended to be environmentally friendly. The designs include energy and water efficient features. The first Element hotel opened in Lexington, Massachusetts in July 2008. As of April 2010, there are seven Element hotels in operation in Denver (Park Meadows), Las Vegas (Summerlin), Houston (Vintage Park), Dallas (DFW Airport), Ewing NJ, Lexington, and Arundel Mills (BWI Airport). Two Element hotels are scheduled to open within the next year, in New York City and Omaha, Nebraska. Element hotels are built eco-friendly from the ground up, from the floors made of recycled materials to energy-efficient lighting and  plumbing fixture Starwood Preferred Guest Partnerships It has credit card partnerships with American Express (MBNA Canada Bank  partnership replaced by American Express in 2010). Starwood Preferred Guest also has a partnership with 32affiliatedairlinesallowing guests to redeem their points for flights under the â€Å"SPG Flights†Ã‚  program. According to Starwood Hotels and Resorts’ corporate profile, the SPG program Have over 41 million members. Star Points Star Points can be used by Starwood Preferred Guest Members (SPG) to redeem Free nights at Starwood’s hotel properties. In addition, they can be used for merchandise with their partners such as GAP, Westin at Home, Nordstrom and more. Member Tiers/Levels There are 3 main levels of Starwood Preferred Guest. First, there is the basic level, preferred. Next, there is gold level. Lastly, there is Platinum Level. Each  level has better perks. They can  be found on the SPG Website In addition to obtaining these statuses through hotel nights, all Starwood Vacation Ownership owners are automatically enrolled into the Gold Starwood Preferred Guest Program. Some owners of several weeks (5* Elite Owners) are enrolled into the Platinum Starwood Preferred Guest program ROOMS The Westin Pune Koregaon Park offers 277 guestrooms. Balconies open to city or river views . Guestrooms are individually furnished and decorated. Pillow top beds feature signature bedding, triple sheeting, and down comforters. Rooms are furnished with desks and ergonomic chairs. 40-inch LCD televisions come with premium satellite channels, free movie channels, and first-run movies. Wired and wireless high-speed Internet access is available for a surcharge; multi-line  phones, complimentary newspapers, and in-room safes (accommodate laptops) are also provided. Coffee/tea makers are provided. Bathrooms include  separate bathtubs and showers with handheld showerheads, bathrobes, slippers, and makeup/shaving mirrors. Washers/dryers, separate sitting areas, and mini bars are also included. A nightly turndown service and housekeeping are  provided. Amenities available on request include hypo-allergenic bedding. Cribs (infant beds) and rollaway beds are also available. Rooms are accessible via exterior corridors. DINING The Westin Pune Koregaon Park  has 6 restaurants serving breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Guests are offered complimentary hot and cold buffet breakfast. 24-hour room service is available. Dining The Westin Pune  Koregaon Park with its six restaurants and bars is the destination to refuel, replenish and refresh. Three unique eateries, one specialty food store and cafe, a lobby lounge, and a bar provide a  wide range of culinary delights  as well as myriad moments to savor. Our all-day dining restaurant, Seasonal Tastes offers a contemporary buffet and a la carte menu for a unique combination of Asian and international cuisine. Dramatic buffet displays and interactive stations present an exciting dining experience. People; Passion; Pleasure! Prego is a modern Italian restaurant serving authentic regional home-style dishes. Hearty signature dishes and an open pizza oven make for a lively and aromatic meal. The refined Kangan features delightfully authentic Indian food from the North-West Frontier. A tandoor show kitchen is the restaurant’s central feature, allowing you to look on as culinary artists expertly assemble your meal before your eyes. Make Daily Treats your everyday, one-stop shopping destination for delectable gourmet delicatessen items. Take them with you or relax in the cozy deli while you recharge with a hot coffee or specialty beverage. Mix@36, overlooking the Mula Mutha River, offers a stylish setting in which to relax with friends over handcrafted martinis, alluring wines, specialty coffees and teas, and snacks. SPA The Westin Pune Koregaon Park has a full-service spa featuring massage/treatment rooms, facials, body treatments, and beauty services. Body treatments Facial treatments Features; Activities Renew your total health and wellness at The Westin Pune Koregaon Park. Our beautiful outdoor  infinity pool creates an exciting visual impact, not to mention a refreshing place for exercise or  utter relaxation, while our state-of-the-art fitness and health facilities in the  Westin WORKOUT ®Gym offer an experience of well-being and serenity for all our guests. Our Heavenly Spa by Westin? helps the body shed fatigue and stress to encourage balance, repose, and wellness. Clear your mind. Free  your senses. The hotel presents a multilingual staff committed to offering a unique blend of personal and instinctive service. Our Business Centre provides services 24 hours a day to ease executives’ worries and help complete tasks efficiently and successfully. Elemental amenities and personal touches such as parking and a gift shop help make your stay convenient and comfortable. We welcome families, and will pay special attention to your needs. The Westin Kids Club ® is a  program that provides for children’s safety and security as well as providing conveniences designed to make your overnight and dining experiences more enjoyable for both parents and children Hotel Features Concierge Desk Our concierge is here to make your stay as enjoyable as possible. If you have questions or need local area information, tourist information, dining suggestions, tickets or reservations, simplyask? our multilingual staff stands ready to assist. Westin Executive Club Lounge Club floor guests enjoy exclusive access to the upscale Executive Club Lounge, offering all-day tea and coffee service, continental breakfast, evening cocktails and snacks. Subject to availability, a private meeting room is an  ideal gathering spot. Outdoor Pool   A refreshing view of the Mula Mutha River from our expansive infinity pool with cascading waterfall makes this a sublime setting for relaxing in the sun. Accessible to all resident and Westin Club guests. Food and beverage service offered. Poona Club Golf Course This 18-hole course, located in the city centre just 10 minutes away from the hotel, is managed  by the Poona Club. This beautiful course has no green fee for hotel guests. Transportation from the hotel is available for a  nominal charge. Westin WORKOUT ® Gym Our gym is operational around the clock with the latest equipment from Star Trac ®. Free weights, lat pull down, dumbbells, treadmills, and other weight and cardio equipment make this an ideal place to raise your heart rate and enjoy the process. Westin Kids Club ® A value to both children and parents, Westin Kids Club ® is a unique program that takes care of your children while you are busy, while also providing a fun learning opportunity and enhancing their talents. Business Centre Our full service Business Centre is designed to accommodate the busy lifestyles and minute-by-minute demands on our guests. Heavenly Spa by  Westin Experience a unique urban sanctuary where East meets west. We will provide you the best spa experience possible through quality products and services. Indulge yourself with our innovative and luxurious treatments for absolute peace and  repose. Unwind(SM) Transition from day to night, and renew your state of mind. Here in Pune, you’ll enjoy a variety of evening unwind(SM) activities to relax and recharge, from Indian folk dancing to footer flex logy to a lesson in the art  of Henna application. BUSINESS CENTRE Designed to meet the needs of today’s business traveler, Westin hotels and resorts provide services and amenities that take productivity to  new levels. Experience ease and comfort throughout your stay with services like wireless internet that can be accessed from guest rooms and the lobby, and high-speed internet access throughout the hotel. Our Business Center offers many of the services required by today’s business traveler, including faxing and printing capabilities. Westin Clutter-Free Meetings helps planners and guests stay organized and productive with an open room design and layout and socially conscious amenities. Streamlined stations provide  paper, pens, glasses, water and other thoughtful touches, keeping the main work area uncluttered and organized. ?Green? features such as energy-efficient light bulbs, double-sided meeting pads and water pitchers in lieu of bottled water help eliminate waste and reduce consumption. *Before and after your meetings, you can sharpen your mind and rid your body of stress with thoughtful amenities such as in-room gyms, menus rich in SuperFoodsRx ® and luxurious spa services. And once your work is done, reward yourself with a game of golf, a relaxing massage or a glass of wine during Unwind  « A  Westin Evening Ritual(SM). You’ve earned it. SUPER-FOODS Eat, drink and be healthy. One of the ways that Westin has made it easy for guests to maintain a healthy lifestyle is with the introduction of our extensive SuperFoodsRx(TM)* menu. We are the first hotel to offer signature SuperFoodsRx menu with more than 10 delicious options from steel-cut oatmeal and  blueberry smoothies to smoked turkey tacos and broccoli and cheddar omelets. These nutrient-rich dishes are available on our in-room dining menu in addition to being offered a la carte and in the breakfast buffet  downstairs . We have teamed with doctors and nutritionists to create a menu that cultivates ? food synergy,? or  the pairing of certain foods to increase their nutritional value. We pass this knowledge on to you on our menus and buffet fact sheets, which detail all the nutritional benefits of each food and how they work in combination with each other. It’s just one of the many ways Westin is committed to your wellness, from the inside out. Meetings ; Weddings Our 1,470 square meters of meeting space with eight meeting or function rooms will transform your meeting or event into  something truly remarkable. The Westin Pune Koregaon Park’s unique blend of personal and instinctive service, custom-designed menus, and the latest meetings technology will provide everything you need for memorable event. Eight flexible meeting or function rooms? including 1,050 square meters of  refined special-event space? guarantees an energized and inspired meeting, conference, wedding or gala social function. All rooms feature the latest in audiovisual technology as well as wireless and High Speed Internet  Access. A dedicated meeting and banquet floor houses our Business Centre as well as offering wireless High Speed Internet Access throughout. With state-of-the-art videoconferencing features and services available in every meeting venue, all events can be tailored to your specific needs. Our  wedding specialist is available to help as you begin crafting your perfect day, and our  experienced and professional Catering Sales Manager will ensure that each event meets your  wishes and is a success Distance from commercial areas | | Airport| 06km| Deccan Gymkhana| 15km| Pune Railway Station| 06km| Shivajinagar| 19km| M. G Road| 09km| Koregaon Park| 1km| Pune University| 20km| HinjewadiPimpri/Chinchwadi| 9km25km| DESIGNATION Position| Name| General Manager| Mr. Anurag Bhatnagar| FB Manager| Mr. Chandan Thakur| Banquet Manager| Mr. Murari Prasad| Restaurant Manager| Mr. J. K. Pilli| Front Office Manager| Mrs. Sonali Zagade| G. R. E| Mrs. Noorjanha Khan| Executive Chef| Mr. Santosh Zori| Executive HousekeeperSales Marketing ManagerH. R ManagerTraining Manager| Mr. ZulfikarMrs. Megha MathurMr. Jagdeep ShettyMr. Sanjay Kumar| FOOD BEVERAGE SERVICES: INTRODUCTION Hotels have two branches of hospitality  ± the accommodation operations – service the other one is food beverage department . Various subdivision  of F  Ã‚  B  service department is: Restaurants Room service Banquet Bar Pastry shop Coffee shop Cafeteria RESTAURANT- Restaurant is a commercial establishment committed to the sale of food beverage. A restaurant may be a licensed part of a hotel operations, where by the sale of restaurant contribute to the sales performance of the hotel as a whole. Restaurant may be I independent business entities under individual ownership management.. Basically restaurants provide table chairs for people to sit eat food prepared by an attached kitchen. ROOM SERVICE The room service department is responsible for service of food beverage in guest room. It is a 24hrs facility provided to the guests of the hotel. The  different types  of  restaurants in  THE WESTIN are Daily Treats With freshly-baked breads, pastries and cakes and a delectable sandwich bar plus an enviable collection of cookbooks, innovative lifestyle products, and eclectic food and beverage events, Daily Treats is an everyday stop on your schedule. Cuisine: Deli Dress Code: Casual Hours: 8:00 AM – 10:00 PM Atmosphere: Coffee Conversations Setting: Casual K  angan Our  stylish  Indian  restaurant serving delectable North-West frontier  and  Hyderabad  cuisine. An open tan door kitchen adds a dramatic element to the venue. Authentic flavors are given contemporary presentation in this unique family-style eatery. Cuisine: Indian Dress Code: Casual Sophistication Hours: 6:30 PM – 12:00 AM Atmosphere: Elegant Setting: Indoor Mix@36 This modern, cozy and stylish lounge allows guests meet and mix with a scenic view of the river. Mix@36 boasts the best selection of wines, vodkas and whiskies around. Up-front and  personable, the bartenders are here to  serve and entertain. Cuisine: International Dress Code: Casual Hours: 5:00 PM – 1:00 AM Atmosphere: Warm and Casual Setting: Indoor Prego: People, passion, pleasure: this enjoyable eatery offers a lively atmosphere for tasty pizzas, regional pastas, and hearty and creative Italian food trends. The perfect setting to enjoy an authentic Italian meal with a healthy dash  of fun! Cuisine: Italian Dress Code: Casual Hours: Tuesday – Sunday 12:30 PM – 3:30 PM, 6:30 PM – 12:00 AM; Atmosphere: Casual Setting: Informal Seasonal Tastes An interactive dining destination serving a contemporary buffet of Asian and international cuisines highlighting the fresh and in season, Seasonal Tastes is open for breakfast, lunch and dinner. We also offer of an  irresistible a la carte  menu. Cuisine: International Dress Code: Casual Hours: 24 Hours Atmosphere: Casual Q-bar  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Chill out and relax in this hip and intimate Latin American club. Featuring signature  cocktails and an extensive collection of premium vodkas, whiskeys and wines, plus intriguing small-plate tapas. DJs and live music add to  the festive atmosphere. Dress Code: Closed-Toe Shoes Required Parking: Valet Parking available at the Main Porch and Banquet Lobby Atmosphere: Vibrant Setting: Hip Classy FRONT-OFFICE INTRODUCTION The front office may be regarded as the show window of the hotel and hence must be well designed in the first place and maintained in a well organized and orderly manner. Regardless of how the hotel is organized the front office is always an essential focal point . Front office is the name Given to all offices situated in the front of the house, that is, the lobby, such offices where the guest is received, provided information, his luggage is handled, his accounts are settled at departure, and his problems, complaints and suggestion are looked after. The front desk is the link between the guest and the co-ordination of all guest services. It serves as a main channel of both way communication i. e. from hotel to guest and guest to the hotel . hotel terminology includes terms such as front of the house and bake-of-the house this front of the-house term includes those portion of the hotel with which the guest comes in direct  contact during his period  of occupation , such  as building exterior, lobby front desk ,gust room , function rooms , etc. the back of-the-house areas are those with which the guest generally do not come in contact such as the pay roll ,accounting epartment , food preparation  centre , repairs and maintenance and  laundry ,  etc . The front office is the main controlling centre of all guest services, and also co-ordinate  as  the back  office functions  with  these  services Reservation The reservation section is very important section of front office as this section deals with the impor tant of booking rooms for the free individual traveler guest as well as group. Reception or reservation: The reception department is one of the most important of the front office as this of the sections remains indirect contact with guest right from the time their arrival till their time of departure. Cash: The cash section maintains the various accounts of the guests during their stay at the hotel. It also insures that the various account of the guest accurate and complete regularly by process of night. Bell desk: Bell desk staff with who the guest are in contact the moment entire lobby of the hotel. The bell boy helps the guest in transporting their luggage to their respective rooms. Telephone Exchange: This department performs the important job of directing the various incoming as well as outgoing telephone calls of the hotel. They also compile the bill of the guest incurring various STDs and ISDs call charge and provide wake-up calls to the guest. Information: The information section plays an important role in providing valuable information to guests regarding the hotel, city and the country at large. Booking reservation: All front office and reservations personnel will alt facilities, packages, special sand corporate programmer to effectively sell accommodations and properly record reservations. * Reservations will be accepted by front office or reservations staff 24 hrs per day. All personnel are to be comfortable using suggestive selling techniques. * The information must be neat, accurate and complete. * Dates requested must be available. * A complete reservation includes: * First name, middle initial, last name * Complete address * Telephone number * Arrival date * Arrival time * Departure date * Number of persons GROUP BOOKING: * The front offices will co- ordinate the booking of group rooms with the hotel sales. * Group room blocks will be recorded on charts to maintain room inventory. Accurate and complete group information will provide by the hotel sales to the front office on the monthly group booking chart. * Group booking confirmation all group correspondence will be kept on file by arrival date. * Provision will be made to ensure that all details of the booking agreement are carried out as arranged. Preconvention and all group correspondence will be kept on file by arrival date. * The reservation manager will review rooms blocks vs. pick ? ups da ily within the reservation system to maintain room s inventory. Business lost due to all space being held by groups should be reported to the hotel Sales immediately. * All Reservations and front office personne4 will be providing complete information regarding booking TELEPHONES The telephone operator handles both in-house outside calls transfers them wherever needed. She is completely in-charged responsible. Her shift timing is from 10. 00am to 7. 00 pm. In her absence she forwards the calls to the reception the receptionists on duty look after the calls. Instruments Used 1. EPBX (electronic private branch of exchange) 2. Computer . Printer 4. Xerox machine 5. Fax machine Registers maintained: 1. STD/ISD call register 2. Wake up call register Concierge (Bell desk) Functions 1. Postage 2. Message 3. Check in (carry luggage) 4. Check out (carry luggage) 5. Provide newspaper 6. Provide stretcher, wheel chair if required 7. Assisting guests 8. Purchasing items required by the guest s from outside Note; Newspaper is complimentary; If guest requires some medicines from outside then they charged. HOUSEKEEPING: INTRODUCTION Housekeeping is the most important department in a hotel, as people want to stay in a clean hotel. It is the biggest physical area in many hotels. Housekeeping is responsible for maintenance of a clean, pleasant and orderly environment the housekeeping department is the nerve center of  the  hotel. It  is  responsible  for  cleanliness,  maintenance  and  aesthetic  upkeep  of  the  hotel  . It  takes  a  well  organized  approach  and  technicalunderstanding to enable housekeeping to cope with the volume of  work. Housekeeping standards have a  direct bearing on  forming aneverlasting  impression  and  impact  in  the  mind  of  the  guest. A  cleanhotel is the foremost requirement of every visitor putting up the  hotel. tandard  cleanliness  is  the  basic  responsibility  of  thehousekeeping  department  repeat  clientele  and  generation  of  maximumrevenue  depends  upon  the  efficient  and  smooth  running  of  thehousekeeping operation. To have such efficienc y, there should be a proper network, so that maximum service can be provided to the guest and for this, each one should put in ones best efforts. STAFFING * One floor supervisor, one public area supervisor, one line room supervisor, mini-bar supervisor one desk attendant reports in the morning. * 18 Room boys 12 public area boys come in the morning shift. Executive House Keeper comes for the general shift. The desk attendant supervisor or any other supervisor is supposed to take note of  the expected arrivals, expected departure, V. I. P. arrivals for the hotel promotions, group check-ins / check-outs, guest comments feedback, special in-house guest, special requests if any, complaints, any relevant inter office correspondence mentions the same on the white board displayed The desk attendant supervisor or any other supervisor is supposed to take note of  the expected arrivals, expected departure, V. I. P. rrivals for the hotel promotions, group check-ins / check-outs, guest comments feedback, special in-house guest, special requests if any, complaints, any relevant inter office correspondence mentions the same on the white board displayed. MINI BAR * Objective Effective quick system of refilling room upon consumption/check-outs controlled replenishments. * Location – 2nd floor * No. of mini bars -277 * Staff strength – 03 MINI BAR SETUP 1. Kenly  packaged  drinking  water  (  1  lt. )  05 2. Cola  (300ml)  02 3. Lemon  (Sprite-300ml)  02 4. Orange  (Fanta-300ml)  02 5. Pint  Beer  (Foster-330ml)  02 . Salted  Wafers  (40g-basket)  01 7. Roasted  Almond  (30g)  01 8. Kitchen  chocolate  01 9. Snickers  chocolate  02 10. Creamers 04 11. Absolute  vodka (90ml)  02 12. Black  dog  Whisky  (90ml)  02 The supervisor in charge of mini bar looks after this section in the housekeeping department with the assistance of another room boy. The consumption is checked in the morning no te. This is charged daily to the guest through the reception. Then depending on the consumption the mini bar is refilled . A mini consumption register is maintained which contains the consumption of  every room day wise along with the bill numbers. The closing stock of the mini bar is also mentioned daily Cleaning Equipment * Vacuum cleaner * Mopping trolley * Mechanical Brush for porch cleaning Cleaning Agents 1. R3  Bathroom  cleaner 2. R6 W. C. 3. R4  Room  Freshener 4. R2  All  Purpose 5. R5  Wooden  Surface 6. R6  All  Purposes 7. Helios  Bathroom  Fixtures 8. Spotter  Carpet  spotting 9. Lemon  zee  Hard  stain 10. Behold  Wooden  Furniture UNIFORM ROOM: The hotel has a separate uniform room for the staff, situated at the basement level. Each staff is issued with three pairs of uniforms. Each staff has a number which is monogrammed on the uniform for easier identification. Manager supervisors have their names written Laundry: THE WESTIN does not have its own in-house Laundry. Linen, uniforms guests laundry are given on contract basis outside the premises. There are separate contractors for guest’s laundry linen a separate contractor for staff uniforms. The laundry taken is written own and a returnable gate pass is made. On bringing the laundry this pass is show the items are counted . The discrepancy is taken note of. Guest laundry is given in a laundry bag with the particular room number written on it. They are received in a similar way too. Thereafter the room boys return the laundry to the guests;after  they  are  charged,  while  servicing  the  :  In  seasons  hotel  have  off  premises  laundry  which  is  given  on  contract  basis  the  laundering  of  both  guest  and  hotel  linen  is  done  on  contract by  an  external  laundry  . Allthe  linen  is  collected  in  the  linen  room  from  where  it  is  dispersed  to  thelaundry  for  washing  the  guest  and  hotel  linen  is  done  on  contract  by  anexternal  laundry. All  the linen is collected in the linen room from where it is dispersed to the laundry for washing room. FOOD PRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION Room sales food sales of the hotels revenue are earned by the service outlets, the food production departments hand is more important as it determines the sales volume. So it is often said Food is The Life of the Hotel The main kitchen is planned in such a way to have an easy accessibility to all the service outlets important areas. The kitchen is divided into section with skilled employees working in it. The stewarding area is attached to the main kitchen The kitchen for the staff is separate is not related to the main kitchen. The raw material is picked up from the main store. Hotels are justly proud of their reputation for fine cuisine and elegant dining. Food production is an integral part of the service of the hotel. When the guest arrives at the hotel he not only expects a comfortable and relax stay, but he also expects good food of the highest possible standards. Especially In today times with growing competition it very essential that the hotel tries to provides as many food outlets to the guest serving various kinds of quality cuisines. Food production is the conversion of food from the raw to the palatable state. It is no longer a profession concealed in mystery like the secrets of ancients. The great wealth of knowledge and the most of the secrets are available easily today with its formula. There are principle, procedures and techniques in the food production as they are in other filed As the simple as sounds . It refers to any service rendered to gratify basic human needs of hunger and joy of eating and drinking for physiological satisfaction. Cookery is define as a chemical process, the mixing of  ingredients, the application and with drawl of it decision making, technical knowledge and manipulating skill. In the more advance stages further element occurs that the creativity. Cookery is considered to be both and art and a technology. THE KITCHEN SUBDIVISIONS In the hotel, they use the decentralized system of kitchen functioning though in some places centralized system is used. The main section the food production departments THEWESTIN Hotel are: MAIN KITCHEN This section of kitchen is divided into three subsections. Soup section Hot Range (Continental) Indian GARDEMANGER This section deals with the cold meat and food the department. It serves to all the outlets of the hotel such as butler’s pantry, room service, coffee shop, Ian Rochelle, other section of the kitchen, etc. BAKERY This is the section of the kitchen working continuously and producing high quality cakes, Pastries, desserts, bread rolls, etc. BUTCHERY Butchery in hotel terminology is also called meat fabrications as it is involved in changing the form of meat, poultry, and fish etc form unclean large chunks to clean and appropriate sizes as required for various purposes. SPECIALTY KITCHEN These are the kitchen solely working for the restaurant they are attached These kitchen are producing only the typed of cuisines by the restaurant. The kitchen work on break shift basis except for the North West frontier cuisine kitchen as it involves a great deal of cooking over a long period of time. BANQUET KITCHEN Specially meant for banquet functions Food Hygiene, Health and  Safety Introduction This module makes an important contribution to the super visory aspects of food hygiene and safety. Supervisors with food safety and health and safety responsibilities need to ensure that all staff operate in a safe, hygienic and efficient manner. The overall aims of this module are to ensure students are familiar with key aspects of current legislation, good practice and health, safety and food  safety issues. Food  hygiene is a broad term used to describe the preservation and preparation of foods in a manner that ensures the food is safe for human consumption. This process of kitchen safety includes proper storage of food items prior to use, maintaining a clean environment when  preparing the food, and making sure that all serving dishes are clean and free of bacteria that could lead to  some type of contamination. The food storage aspect of food hygiene is focused on maintaining the quality of the food, so that it will be fresh when used in different recipes. With dry goods, proper food hygiene calls for  Ã‚  placing items such as sugar or flour in airtight containers that are clean and dry. The containers are then placed into a  pantry or reside on a kitchen counter where they are relatively safe from humidity and extreme temperatures. In like manner, meats must be stored properly as part of proper food hygiene. Many people choose to use containers especially designed for use in a freezer in order to preserve raw meats for later use. Freezing helps to slow the process of decay, thus minimizing the chances for  food  poisoning when the meat is used at a later date. Food sanitation also extends to keeping the preparation area clean and relatively germ-free. Mixing bowls, spoons, paring knives and any other tools used in the kitchen should be washed thoroughly before use. Kitchen countertops and cutting boards should also be cleaned and sterilized from time to time. Keeping a sanitary workplace will also cut down on the chances of  some type of food borne illness from developing when people consume the prepared food CONCLUSION THE WESTIN is among the abode in the financial capital of the country. While training at THE  WESTIN it has been  an  honor  being  trained there the  staff was so  supportive to pave me a successful training and took out my hesitant attitude out of me and learning  ability enhanced  for  people  their  they  are  an  honor  in  them selves. When first began my industrial training but went by ever so quickly and have left me craving for much more. I would have to say that ills an absolutely fabulous part of the curriculum and perhaps will remain the most memorable one. Needless to say that this experience was highly enriching and educating one as I went on from one department to another and meet got the opportunity to train under  several highly respected senior professional learned that every individual is different that everyone has something unique to offer . I learnt that every job has its nuances and its value and that no lob is scarier to the other I learn that on needs to constantly improved improvise. I learnt that is just the beginning of long road ahead full of  challenges. But  I know  that will be able to  run along because I have  my foundation firmly built in. It is here that I got the opportunity to continuously introspect and improve use budding professional as a human being. I will always look back at the time spent here with fondness and with pride. I cannot but thank all the people who helped in several different ways thus I will go along way facilitating the commencement of wonderful journey. 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Saturday, April 25, 2020

Slavery in Brazil

Introduction Slavery is a term used to refer to an affiliation of supremacy and obedience whereby one person possesses another and can extort from the possessed person labor or any other services. Slaves can be people detained against their will, bought or born into this dehumanizing way of life, they are denied the right to leave or to reject work, or even ask for reimbursement.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Slavery in Brazil specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Slavery in Brazil created the country’s societal arrangement and cultural background. All through the regal period, and for a period of more than six decades after the 1822 independence, slavery was one of the strongholds of the Brazil economy, in particular in the mining and sugar cane production sectors[1] Slave Trade in Brazil In the years after the 1500s Portuguese colonies situated in Brazil began to import African saves in large numbers. This was easy for them as the Portuguese were in control of several slave trade centres in the coast of West Africa where slaves were sold. African slaves became the preferred choice to work in big sugar cane plantations and mines as they were resilient to tropical diseases and heat and the fact that they were reluctant to run away from their masters was a good thing for the Portuguese as they made more money this way. Soon after the 1600’s African slaves were found to be engaged in all economic sectors of Brazil. This is because they were good workers who worked hard for their masters; rarely got sick and rarely run off into the jungle. Slave trade was abolished in May 1888 when Princess Isabel signed the; Lei Aurea, the ‘Golden Law’ that made slave trade illegal therefore legally putting an end to slavery in Brazil. The original script and the pen used to sign this document are preserved in the Brazilian national museum as it part of the history of Brazil. This sing le document freed the slaves and if it was not signed when it was, maybe slavery would have continued for much longer. Due to the ending of the slave trade in 1888 in Brazil, the African culture is still very pronounced especially in the Bahia and the Northeast. The African slaves still practiced and practice their native cultures, food, music, dance and customs all which are viewed in the pulsating cultural assortment that is now independent Brazil[2]. Abolition of slavery in Brazil Brazil was the last country in the Americas to abolish slave trade as slavery. The plight of slaves was noted down in literature that spoke out against slavery and spoke for the slaves themselves. Literature in Brazil included poems that spoke out against the suffering of slaves at the hands of their slave masters who in most cases were than not brutal. Abolitionist literature in Brazil was not limited and each and every person was allowed to freely express themselves and their feelings how they saw fit .Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After independence in Brazil, antislavery appeals were found in local dailies and periodicals majority of these appeals however called for a stop to the slave trade and not slavery itself which is ironic. â€Å"In 1850, the travel of human slaves to Brazil was stopped due to the consequence of British political and naval pressure†[3]. Shortly after the stop of slave trade, literature and poetry that depicted free blacks and slaves positively began to make its way into the market, how ever these works did not openly criticize slavery on its own. Essays, poems, drama and novels began aggressively attacking slavery as a corrupting authority on white slave holders and as a hindrance on economic progress of the country as a whole. This catalyzed the process of abolishing slave trade and slavery itself and the slaves were set free to find and build the ir own lives away from the slave lives[4]. It took some years however before the literature works took centre stage in fighting against slavery and positively stating that the slaves should be set free. Arguments based on the sufferings of the slaves were the basis of majority of the literature works they talked about how much the slaves suffered under their masters and this brought about awareness concerning slavery. Some of the most famous abolitionist in Brazil include: Antonio Frederico de Castro Alves who was termed as the Conscience of Brazil due to his works that openly denounced slavery Os EScravos which contain poems like â€Å"Navio Negreiro: tragedia nomar†, â€Å" O Bandido Negro† and â€Å" Vozes d’Africa† published in 1883. Other poets; Silvio Romero and Valentim Magalhaes also fanned the flames of abolitionism with depictions of extreme brutality and inhumanity of slavery. On top of poems, novels were written that were against slavery and s lave trade for example; Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin published in 1852. This novel showed how innocent slaves suffered at the hands of their masters and their overseers. Joaquim Manuel de Macedo’s As Vitimas Algozes written in 1869 and Bernardo Guimaraes’s A Escrava Isaura written in 1875. O Abolicionismo by Joaquim Nabuco a statesman written in 1883 is widely noted and accepted as an abolitionist work for its common and political appeal. This book disproved of the underlying principle of pro-slavery forces used in opposition for the continuation of Brazilian slavery.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Slavery in Brazil specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is important to note that all the above mentioned works of literature were written before 1888 when the golden rule was signed. This is to show that these literature works played a major part in pushing for the abolishing o f slave trade and slavery in Brazil. They played a major role in abolishing slave trade and slavery in Brazil as they identified the pleas and cries of the slaves at the hand of their masters and spoke out these injustices for all people to know[5]. Ways in which Abolitionism was anti slavery and anti slave in Brazil There were quite a number of ways in which abolitionism was against anti slavery and anti slave in Brazil. This paper will discuss the moral, political, societal motivation behind the abolitionist movement not also forgetting the policies and plans employed in the abolitionist movement. These different ways in which abolitionism is looked upon as being both anti slavery and anti slave will help us understand not only the plight of the slaves but also why other people fought passionately for freedom of slaves and the abolition of slave trade. Looking at the moral point of view, citizens of Brazil had a number of reasons to be part of the abolitionist movement. Religion w as the first moral perspective to join the abolitionist movement, Christians who were at the forefront of this movement believed that it was the duty of the church to correct wrongs made by the society. Christians viewed slavery as wrong and believed that each person was equal in the eyes of God, so it should also be in the eyes of fellow mankind. Other secular movements joined the movement of abolitionist as they felt slavery was going against the basic foundations of the government as it brought about unfair torment that clearly spelled out inequality among human beings[6]. The economic and political view of slavery brought about questions of inequality as some politicians saw slavery as being unconstitutional. One of the goals of constitution was to bring equality to all man and slavery was a hindrance to this therefore, the politicians also joined in the abolitionist movement. Majority of the people were passionate about the cause of ending slavery that they formed a political p arty that specifically fought for the rights and freedoms of slaves. The fact that the constitution brought forth the equality of all mankind and that citizen also fought for the freedom of the slaves made the abolitionist movement stronger and more effective and finally slave trade and slavery was eradicated all together in Brazil[7]. Societal reforms were also a huge part of how abolitionist was anti slaves and anti slavery in Brazil. These societal reformers included groups of ethical and outstanding citizens who were concerned with church communities, or new group thinkers. These individuals made it their sole purpose to correct the wrongs of slavery and the wrongs in education, prisons and also voting rights.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These people wanted radical changes in the society that would make the society a much better place to live in for all people. People who joined the reformers were persuaded by the leaders’ views and they saw it as their responsibility to make changes in the society. The abolitionist movement in Brazil was both anti slave and anti slavery as to employ different ways and tactics to use in spreading the cause in order to get many supporters. One of the major ways of distributing the information they had was through use of leaflets that were distributed all over the countryside. These leaflets were used to tell people and educate them on the reasons they had for being against slavery and about why they wanted to end it. Novels, poems, stories and other literature works were also used in educating people on why slavery needed to be abolished thus getting support for the abolitionist movement. Organizations against slave trade and slavery also came into being and they fought for eq uality rights of the Brazilian slaves. These organizations got a lot of support as they were led by prominent people who were passionate about bringing an end to slave trade and slavery. Several revolts and riots organized by these organizations which included free and enslaved men fighting for their freedom this however led to the slaves being deported to Benin, Nigeria and Togo[9]. Conclusion In conclusion, slave trade and slavery was a booming business in the 1800’s. People were captured from their native lands and sailed hundreds of miles to work in plantations, mines under the cruelty and brutality if their masters. These people were also forced to work in their masters houses performing terrible acts that their overseers and masters demanded. Slaves were uprooted from their lives that they knew only to be forced to adapt to a whole new lifestyle that saw the treated far much worse than animals themselves. The brutality and cruelty of the masters brought about a lot of s uffering on the slaves as they were inflicted with wounds that would take a long time to heal not to mention that the punishments that were mostly beatings that at times resulted in death of the slaves. The slaves would at times result to witchcraft to quell the brutality of their master’s and at times the slaves killed their masters. Some slaves who opted not to run away continued suffering at the hands of their masters and overseers. The biggest issue about slavery was that some of the slaves were born into it and they knew no other life other than the life of submission, and following orders that resulted in punishment when one disobeyed. The brutality and cruelty of the masters of these slaves brought about activists that rose and fought against slavery and slave trade. These activists brought forth the abolitionist movement that fought for the freedom of all the slaves in Brazil. The abolitionist movement approached the issues of slavery and slaves from different view po ints that included the moral, political, societal motivation. These different view points by different people were all anti slave and anti slavery and pushed for reforms in the society that were going to be of help in getting freedom for the slaves. The ways in which the abolitionist movement spread it views in the countryside where majority of the population were slaves, helped in drumming up major support for the noble cause of putting an end to slavery and slaves. Through the distribution of pamphlets the abolitionist movement was able to educate the people and get a lot of manpower and individuals to participate in the riots and revolts that were arranged by organizations to drum up support that would fight against slavery and slaves. References Bentley, J. Ziegler, H. 2005. Traditions and encounters: A Global Perspective on the past. Mcgraw-Hill College. Creative commons. 2001. A Brief History of Slavery. Web. Diouf, S. A. 2009 ed. Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strate gies. Athens: Ohio University Press. Mattoso, Katia M. de Querios 2004. To be a slave in Brazil, 1550-1888, Rutgers University Press. Richardson, K. 2009. Abolition- the Role of the individual in Effecting Change. Web. The Gale Group 2004 Nineteenth-Century Abolitionist Literature of Cuba and Brazil, the Gale Group, Inc. Farmington Hills. Footnotes Creative commons 2010. A Brief History of Slavery Mattoso, Katia M. de Querios 2004. To be a slave in Brazil, 1550-1888, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813511550 The Gale Group 2004 Nineteenth-Century Abolitionist Literature of Cuba and Brazil, the Gale Group, Inc. Farmington Hills The Gale Group 2004 The Gale Group 2004 Richardson, K. 2009 Abolition- the Role of the individual in Effecting Change Richardson, K 2009 Bentley, J. Ziegler, H. Traditions and encounters: A Global Perspactive on the past. Pp 781-805 Diouf, S. A. 2009 ed. Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strategies. Athens: Ohio University Press This essay on Slavery in Brazil was written and submitted by user Isaac Callahan to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.